I INTRODUCTION This seance will review the conditions normally encountered in the Mute roll, with methods of treatment. A brief life history and section on general worry and wield are included. II LIVE HISTORY The Mute swan is a large, white, sedentary, fiercely territorial waterfowl found on a big number of waterways in the UK. Breeding starts at 3 to 4 years of age, birds frequently pairing for life. Nest build and courting behavior begin in February, nests being built normally on crunch near the waters edge. The female incubates the clutch of 5-7 eggs for 30 days. Male and female worry for the cygnets, who are hatched during May to July covered in down and ready to swim. Weed is pulled up and the body of water tread to disturb sediment for the cygnets to feed. Parental wish generally lasts for 7 months, the juveniles being regarded american samoa adults as their brown feather is replaced by blank, and then are chased aside. They tend to flock until they are of breeding historic period. Swans can live for up to 25 years. III GENERAL CARE, HANDLING AND PROCEDURES The Mute affirm is very territorial and aggressive in the fantastic, but responds well to a silence calm approach and environment. removal from the water is often achieved by swiftly pulling the head after tempting with food. For transporting, tie the humerus together over the back using a piece of stretchable bind or lengths of honest-to-god pair of tights. Use lapp to tie legs together over tail. Carrying the shuttlecock is easiest under the arm to pinion the wings, while the head can be lightly controlled with the early hand. Swans get very stressed when retain near cats and dogs, and depressed if kept off from other swans, specially members of a family group around breeding time. recovery can be sternly impeded if these factors are not considered. feed from a washing-up size bowl, fully of water, bread, grain, grit and greens. Some aid may be needed to introduce the bird to this method of run. routine writhe on entree to the sanctuary has not been found necessity or desirable ( consideration of the effects of the excrete drug residue on the environment ). Aim to allow access to water system for bathe, float and wash a soon as possible. 24-48 hours with access to a small pool is necessary for roll to regain waterproofing. release as near to where found as possible, because of district. This may not be possible in cases where water contaminant was the original problem, or if an amputation has been necessary. release on all right day with several hours of day left. General anaesthesia. There is no prerequisite for pre-operative withholding of food or fluids or for pre-medication. We use intra-operative i/v fluids ( normally Hartmanns ) introduced via a 23 or 25 G i/v cannula through the median tarsal vein. Anaesthesia is induced with propofol ( Rupinovet ) at 0.Srnl/kg ( adult average soundbox weight around l0-l2kg ) .Maintain with Isotlurane ( Abbott ) delivered by uncuffed endotracheal tube ( about 6mm for pornographic, taped around beak with Elastoplast or similar ) and Dams racing circuit ( Oz flow 2-4 I/mm, Isoflurane around 2.5 to 4 % ). azotic oxide is occasionally necessity, used at 0.2-0.5 I/rain, no higher. monitor of anesthesia is not deoxyadenosine monophosphate straightforward as with mammals. We use a respiratory monitor, but respiration is occasionally not strong enough for this to work well. Heart is monitored with a stethoscope, pulse on the axillary artery. Neither the palpebral automatic nor the eye position are utilitarian. Pedal reflex is used. many operations are carried out with the bird laterally accumbent. A towel is rolled and placed between the keel and the table to allow adaxial movement during respiration Debilitated birds often require intravenous fluid therapy, around 1L per day for an adult. medication via the parenteral route is preferred to oral where possible.Injection site normally used is the skin or brawn caudally to the tibia IV DISEASES As in all cases, history, if available, can be identical helpful. COMMON CAUSES OF INJURY: Angling-related ; crashes ; territorial fights ; wife beat ; shooting ; water craft frump bites ; mink bites ; electricity burns from viewgraph power cable ; leg rings. INTOXICATION: leave and other metals ; Botulism, petroleum contamination. Infections : Aspergillus ; Duck Virus Enteritis ( DVE ). INJURY Angling-related many hooks and lines can be removed on the river bank, needing no further treatment. Hook and line injuries account for about 30 % of our surgical cases. Examine all of shuttlecock including under tongue and under ramus of mandibles. Sub-cutaneous soft-tissue well in the cervical area often is hook. May causal agent respiratory embarrassment, severe infection, inanition, weight loss. Diagnosis assisted by radiography. Hooks generally need removal if in the cervical esophagus. They can wall off BUT can besides cause big tears leading to potentially black abscessation or jugular vein rupture. Remove under general anesthesia. Position shuttlecock in impart lateral recumbence. The skin bleeds abundantly, indeed apply artery forceps to incision site before cutting. Repair oesophagus with 2 layers of suaged on silk. Outer layer inverted sutures. severe infection is often award : leave skin unsutured or parfially suture and treat as an assailable weave. Beware surgical debridement as affirm pus is very chummy ( like lasagna ), stripping can damage implicit in structures. Use chemical debridemen : ( besides use on early infect wounds ). Honey is identical dependable ( set honey, doesn ’ thyroxine matter what flavour ! ) Hook removal from the mouth may need to be done under general anesthesia. Large curved haemostats are useful, specially for the bogus spotlight ! Hooks reaching the gizzard are NO TROUBLE, and will be pound down. Proventiculotomy is indicated if a lure or float have been swallowed. They normally lodge in the gizzard but the proventriculus heals more easily and allows sufficient entree. Approach via ventral midplane coeliotomy, no motivation to repair air sauk. Line wrapped around limbs can cause austere wound and may even necessitate limb amputation. Wounds often bleed abundantly as tune is removed. Shooting. Air gunman or plunder pellets are most common. One case of musket ball bearings fired from a sling ! We don ’ metric ton normally remove pellets unless they are near the eye or chew the fat. fibrosis is the main trouble. lead toxicity does not occur because the pellets become walled off.
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Bites. Become infected with necrotising bacteria and can be fatal. DO NOT SUTURE. Mink can kill cygnets with one pungency to the abaxial pectoral arm. Electricity cable burns bombastic areas of tissue can necrose and slough off several days after the accident, but doggedness with tied the largest of wounds is frequently rewarded.Nervous problems. frequently caused by crashes, besides see botulism and lead toxicity. Ataxia, inability to stand, limb paresis or paralysis may all improve with time ( up to 8 weeks ). defendant crash interest if the bird is found sitting in the middle of a plain underneath some electricity pylons. Inspect for early wounds or signs of burns. spinal price often accompanied by uncontrolled tail wag. Some pedal point or leg easy weave injury causes dangerous secondary selftrauma, possibly due to nerve ending damage. 1 subject ofbilateral otitis mediaOrthopaedic problems. frequently caused by crashing. Amputation is indicated if the arm distal to the fracture becomes necrotic, or if the limb remains dysfunctional. absence of infection allows you to give the bird some clock time to show improvement. Intra-medullary pin is rarely successful because : infection can not adequately be controlled ; the thin cerebral cortex much splinters ; the large air out filled medullary cavities do not allow any buy for the pin.there is very much coincident steel damage and the limb requires amputation anyway.We occasionally use horizontal pin for the tibia and hold the pins in place with microscope slide carriers filled with Araldite. We have had lots of success using Animalintex as a splint- put on besotted, bandaging into place and allowing to dry. Air theca escape can occur, much as a leave of crashes. There are continuations of breeze sauk in the humerus and in some cervical vertebra. Two developmental conditions are seen : airplane wing, where the ligaments of the wrist are lax, resulting in lateral rotation of the mama No rectify has been found, amputation much being the merely solution ; medially or laterally dislocate digital flexor muscle tendon in the stage. normally a resultant role of aberrant growth of the distal tibjo-tarsal bone. No solution here either. INTOXICATION Lead contribute sinkers used in fresh water fish are ingested and ground depressed in the gizzard. Sale to and function of by fishermen of head daybook and rip jumper cable shoot wide 28gram has been banned since January 1987. The incidence of contribute poison has dropped greatly but still occurs. There is still lead used in some parts of the nation. There is besides some residual lead in river silt, ingested by swans because of their farseeing achieve necks, particularly when the river levels are broken. consumption of conduct shoot from shooting will besides cause lead poisoning. clinical signs include : personnel casualty of righting automatic. ataxia, convulsions and coma ( particularly in cygnets ) ; flaccid paralysis ; a characteristic neck kink ; agape ; anemia ; intestinal impaction ; cephalic oedenia, bright fleeceable diarrhea. recrudescence is likely during the education and molt season, when anxious signs may reappear or feather bleeds occur.Diagnosis is not square but radiography of the ataxic/paralysed swan to find radiopaque particles is utilitarian. A distend gizzard may besides be apparent. Blood jumper cable levels can be useful, but have disadvantages. normal values are O.5-2.O ppm, but some Thames birds have very high gear ` normal ’ levels. Time delay before results return. supportive therapy very important Calcium EDTA chelating therapy according to badness of signs. DO NOT attempt gizzard flushing. General anesthesia risk is increased in lead birds, and damage may be done to the lower oesophageal sphincter. Supportive worry is very authoritative. Botulism.Occurs about entirely in hot dry weather. Often massive die-offs affecting many species in one water system area. Signs easy to confuse with lead poisoning. Flaccid paralysis, bird generally looks a bunch sicker than with lead. Don ’ triiodothyronine get convulsions. Bird much lies with head back between wings. Supportive care and stress-free environment very significant May take several weeks to recover.OilDifferent types of oil causal agent different austereness of problems.Internal toxicity : GIT ulceration, nephritic failure. charcoal or Pepto-Bismol in foodExternal problems : hypothermia, loss of water-proofing and drowning. Wash boo and rinse thoroughly, many litres of water at right temperature necessary. success rate depends on speed of scavenge. Delay wash summons until birds fit adequate. Allow birds time to re-waterproof INFECTIONS aspergillosis common in waterfowl due to mouldy tip. difficult to diagnose, but assume has it if has dyspnoea and/or rattling wet cough. Can be fatal. combination of Amphotericin B and Rifampicin used.Duck Virus Enteritis ( DVE ) Herpes virus, strains of differing virulence. We have seen : Peracute type : massive die-off ( 100+ birds ) in short time, minimal clinical or autopsy signs. acute type : birds appear disgusted, lethargic, tend to die in body of water. Greater clock between deaths, but calm meaning numbers die. clinical signs can resemble Botulism but tends to happen around April time. In addition will get diarrhea with or without lineage, bleeding from mouth or nose.Can besides get carrier state.Post mortem signs : characteristic raised yellow caseous plaques along ridges of lower esophagus ; button ulcers along small and large intestine, particularly cecum and sewer. May get petechiation or ecchymoses on GIT or pericardium ; bantam white focus on liverDiagnosis by postmortem examination findings and virus isolation. Prevent gap by REMOVING BIRDS FROM WATER. Commonly used Drugs
|Trade name / Manufacturer
|1.5 mg/kg tid i/v, concurrently 1mg/kg bid /trachea,and also with Rifampicin.
|Clamoxyl LA, Smith Kline Beecham
|adult 2.Sml SQ alternate days
|I .Sml SQ post-op adult dose
|calcium EDTA strong, Animalcare
|O.75m1 in 2.5m1 sterile water i/rn on every 2nd or 3rd day. repeat oourses as necessary. Severe cases 4-6m1 in drip over 24hrs. Ring Swan sanc for advice
|0.25m1 SQ daily for 2-3 days only.
|Baytril 5 %, Bayer
|set, any post
|very effective, cheap debriding agent
|100mg/kg po single dose
|Ivomec, MSD Agvet
|200ugfkg SQ single dose
|Smith & Nephew
|good debriding agent for wounds
|Crystapen 600mg, Britannia
|i/v in drip, 600mg
|30mg/kg po tid.
|3-SmI SQ sid
| Spectam, Sanofi
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|irn l.Srnl SQ adult dose sid
|l-3m1 SQ sid
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I am broadly interested in how human activities influence the ability of wildlife to persist in the modified environments that we create.
Specifically, my research investigates how the configuration and composition of landscapes influence the movement and population dynamics of forest birds. Both natural and human-derived fragmenting of habitat can influence where birds settle, how they access the resources they need to survive and reproduce, and these factors in turn affect population demographics. Most recently, I have been studying the ability of individuals to move through and utilize forested areas which have been modified through timber harvest as they seek out resources for the breeding and postfledging phases. As well I am working in collaboration with Parks Canada scientists to examine in the influence of high density moose populations on forest bird communities in Gros Morne National Park. Many of my projects are conducted in collaboration or consultation with representatives of industry and government agencies, seeking to improve the management and sustainability of natural resource extraction.