The purpose of this article is to provide a high-quality, accurate, and easy-to-understand summary of the details of mushroom poisoning in cats.
Quick Overview: Cat Mushroom Poisoning
other names: Mycotoxin poisoning, tremor poisoning
common symptoms: Vomiting and diarrhea, drowsiness, loss of appetite; some can cause neurological changes such as tremors, seizures, behavioral changes, and hallucinations.
diagnosis: Support symptoms plus suspected ingestion; identify specific mushrooms using online resources and poison control website images and other toxicology resources; available for testing for amanitas and psilocin.
diagnosed as a cat: rare
need to continue taking medication: No
available vaccines: No
Treatment programs: Symptomatic treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms, neurological symptoms, etc. depending on the mushroom ingested; emetic induction, activated charcoal, and enemas to remove material from the gastrointestinal tract; hospitalization for intravenous fluid therapy and other treatments may be required.
home remedies: No
About Mushroom Poisoning in Cats
Different species of mushrooms are found in different parts of the world, and the climate and ecology vary greatly, which means that it is impossible to write an article with detailed information on poisonous mushrooms for every country. However, the general principles are the same everywhere.
The first is that more than 90 percent of mushrooms are non-toxic: of the several thousand species of mushrooms found in North America, for example, fewer than a hundred are poisonous. Most mushroom poisonings are caused by mushrooms of the Amanita genus.
Amanita poisoning can indeed be fatal, whereas ingestion of other poisonous mushrooms is usually not life-threatening. Additionally, many mild cases may remain undiagnosed. Mushroom poisoning is difficult to diagnose accurately in most cases because only amarin and psilocin are available for specific testing.
Treatment for most types of mushroom poisoning is mostly just general supportive care, although there are specific treatments for amanitin and psilocybin events. In all cases of poisoning, prompt veterinary intervention can save the life of the poisoned cat.
Mushroom poisoning is more common in dogs than cats because of their natural eating habits: dogs are scavengers and are more likely to eat random items they come across (including ingesting mushrooms), while cats tend to be sensitive to them The stuff is picky and careful. However, as small animals, cats can become more vulnerable if they ingest even small amounts of poisonous mushrooms.
What Are the Different Types of Poisonous Mushrooms?
There are thousands of species of mushrooms in the wild, only some of which may be poisonous to your cat. In general, different types of poisonous mushrooms can be classified according to the toxic chemicals they contain, as follows:
- Cyclic peptide, found in species such as Amanita phalloides, Amanita muscaria, destroying angel (Amanita bisporigera), leopard cap mushroom (Amanita pantherina), and Galerina and Lepiota species.
- Isoxazole derivatives, such as ibotenic acid and muscimol, are found in some Amanita genus and Trichomonas species of mushrooms.
- Orelline/ orellanine is found in Cortinarius mushrooms.
- Psilocybin and psilocybin are found in a wide variety of mushroom species, often referred to as “magic mushrooms,” including Psilocybe, Psilocybe, Copelea, Psilocybe, Pleurotus Mushrooms and Stropharia.
- Monomethylhydrazine is found in mushrooms of the Gyromitra genus, also known as “false morels” (because they resemble morels, or “true morels”, which are edible).
- Muscarine is present in the Inocybe and Clitocybe mushroom species.
- General GI toxins are present in a wide variety of mushrooms, too numerous to list individually.
Wild mushrooms aren’t the only source of mushroom toxins that can make your pet sick. Recreational drugs or “magic mushrooms” are often hallucinogenic and contain a variety of toxins that can make your pet sick.
Symptoms of Cat Mushroom Poisoning
The clinical signs shown by cats with mushroom poisoning depend on the type of mushroom ingested: the symptoms are related to the exact toxin contained in the mushroom. Each major group is listed below, along with the major areas affected and the expected symptoms caused.
- Cyclic peptide. Liver signs due to liver failure. Symptoms started about 12 hours after ingestion and initially manifested as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, which appeared to subside, but after 1-3 days, severe life and kidney problems developed leading to collapse, seizures, coma and death.
- Isoxazole derivatives. The liver and nervous system are affected, with symptoms appearing within minutes or hours of ingestion. Vomiting, diarrhea, fast heart rate, hallucinations, seizures, and collapse may occur.
- Orelline/Ao Laining. Renal Failure. What begins with blandness, vomiting and diarrhea leads over the next few days and weeks to all the usual signs of kidney failure with a serious risk of death.
- Psilocybin and psilocybin. nervous system. Symptoms can appear within minutes or hours of ingestion and include drowsiness, disorientation, dilated pupils, hallucinations, vocalizations, aggression, and other symptoms. Cats may become irritable and groom themselves more than usual. Most cases resolve within 8 hours, but residual symptoms such as dullness and mydriasis may persist for a day or more.
- Monomethylhydrazine. nervous system. Signs include sluggishness (or agitation), vomiting and diarrhea, and sometimes seizures.
- muscarine. Gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. So-called muscarinic symptoms can develop rapidly over minutes or hours and include vomiting, diarrhea, salivation with profuse salivation, lacrimation due to increased lacrimation, increased urination, runny nose, and difficulty breathing.
- Common GI toxins cause fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, with symptoms appearing within minutes or hours. Most cases resolve within a few days.
It is very important to take all affected cats to the veterinarian as early as possible so that life-saving treatment can be administered early.
Diagnosis of Feline Mushroom Poisoning
Often, your cat will present with a known history of mushroom exposure followed by discomfort, so a presumptive diagnosis of mushroom poisoning may be made immediately. In other cases, cats may show suspicious signs, and a veterinarian may need to go through a process to make an accurate diagnosis.
Contacting sources of toxicological support such as mycologists, mushroom identification websites such as the North American Mycological Society, the Animal Poison Control Center, or the ASPCA Poison Advice Library may be helpful.
Detailed medical history
Your DVM veterinarian will discuss every aspect of your cat’s life, looking for clues, including possible exposure to possible toxins, including mushrooms. This may include asking about the areas your cats stay in, and the likelihood of mushrooms growing in those areas. If you have pictures of mushrooms you may have seen, this helps in the diagnostic process.
Your veterinarian will carefully examine your cat to rule out other causes for the signs being displayed. If your cat exhibits symptoms such as dilated pupils, tremors, uncoordinated movements, or seizures, a detailed neurologic examination will be performed. Your veterinarian may collect vomit and stool samples on paper towels, examine them for the presence of mushrooms, and examine the samples under a microscope for mushroom spores.
Routine blood tests and other lab work
Your veterinarian may recommend blood work, including the usual diagnostic tests such as hematology (complete blood count) and biochemical analysis.
A urinalysis may also be done.
Abdominal ultrasonography and an electrocardiogram may be done.
Specific tests may be done if amarin and psilocin poisoning is suspected.
Treatment for Cat Mushroom Poisoning
The initial priority is to stabilize the cat for any signs of disease.
- antiemetic treatment antiemetic
- Antiepileptic drugs if the cat is having seizures
- Intravenous fluids to minimize the effects of mushroom toxins on the liver and kidneys
- Medications as needed to control electrolyte abnormalities (such as elevated potassium levels)
- Use other medications as needed to minimize signs the cat develops, such as atropine to treat signs of muscarinic toxicity.
At the same time, special treatment should be done to remove any components of the mushrooms in the body to prevent further absorption of toxins.
Vomiting may be induced, gastric lavage may be performed, activated charcoal may be given, and enemas may be administered.
Prognosis depends on the severity of symptoms, the type and amount of mushrooms consumed, and the cat’s individual ability to process the toxin.
Prevention of Cat Mushroom Poisoning
Check your garden or yard regularly for mushrooms and remove any that you see. Although most are harmless, you can’t be sure.
Recreational mushrooms, or “magic mushrooms,” should be kept out of cats’ reach and locked up.
Mushroom poisoning is a specific diagnosis associated with exposure to specific species of mushrooms. General supportive care from a veterinarian is the main form of treatment, with some treatment specific to the type of mushroom ingested.
What are the symptoms of cat mushroom poisoning?
Signs consist primarily of gastrointestinal and neurologic signs, but a wide range of signs may be present depending on the exact mushroom ingested.
Can cats die from mushroom poisoning?
In many cases of mushroom poisoning, death is possible, and prompt treatment of poisoned cats is critical to minimizing this risk.
How long does it take for mushroom poisoning?
Certain species of mushrooms cause rapid onset symptoms of poisoning, while in others the worst symptoms, which may even result in death, may not appear until days later.
How does mushroom poisoning affect cats?
Each mushroom affects cats differently: see details in the article above for the different possible effects.
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